Month: August 2019
Nearly octahedral diamond crystal in matrix. Image: Wikimedia Commons More information: dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2009.12.015 The super-hard diamonds were created when graphite in the meteorite experienced the intense heat and pressure of entering the Earth’s atmosphere and crashing into the ground. The graphite layers would have been heated and shocked enough to create bonds between them, in much the same way as humans manufacture diamonds.The new carbon crystals were too small to test for precise hardness but they are known to be harder than normal diamonds because the researchers found them by using a diamond paste to polish a slice of the meteorite. The crystals were raised more than 10 µm above the polished surface, which meant they were harder than the diamonds in the polishing paste. The researchers had seen carbon crystals that resisted the diamond polishing in one direction before, but the new crystals were unaffected when polished in every direction.The scientists then used an array of mineralogical instruments, including microscopy, spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-rays among others, to study the structure of the crystals. This allowed them to identify them as representing two new carbon polymorphs or diamond polytypes. One is an ultra-hard rhombohedral carbon polymorph similar to diamond, while the other is a 21R diamond polytype ultra-hard diamond. The existence of ultra-hard diamonds had been predicted decades ago, but they have never before been found in nature. The novel form consists of fused graphite sheets similar to artificial diamond.Professor Tristan Ferroir, leader of the research team from the Université de Lyon in France, said the discovery was accidental, but they had thought an examination of the meteorite would “lead to new findings on the carbon system.”Professor Ferroir said there is currently no way to compare the structure of the new crystals to boron nitride and lonsdaleite, the artificially manufactured ultra-hard diamonds, but the findings help scientists gain a better understanding of carbon polymorphs and give them new materials to investigate and perhaps synthesize. They also show the carbon system is more complex than previously thought.The findings on the new diamond were published in the Earth and Planetary Science Letters journal on February 15. Diamond is one tough cookie Explore further © 2010 PhysOrg.com (PhysOrg.com) — Two new types of ultra-hard carbon crystals have been found by researchers investigating the ureilite class Haverö meteorite that crashed to Earth in Finland in 1971. Ureilite meteorites are carbon-rich and known to contain graphite and diamonds. Citation: Meteorite yields carbon crystals harder than diamond (2010, February 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-02-meteorite-yields-carbon-crystals-harder.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
“This is the first time that anyone has directly observed the mechanism of fullerene formation,” Andrei Khlobystov of the University of Nottingham told PhysOrg.com. “Shortly after the discovery of fullerene (exactly 25 years ago), the ‘top down’ mechanism of fullerene assembly was proposed. However, it was soon rejected in favor of a multitude of different ‘bottom up’ mechanisms, mainly because people could not understand how a flake of graphene could form a fullerene and because they did not have means to observe the fullerene formation in situ.”As the scientists report in a recent study published in Nature Chemistry, there are four main steps involved in this top-down fullerene formation process, which can be explained by quantum chemical modeling. The critical first step is the loss of carbon atoms at the edge of the graphene sheet. Because the carbon atoms at the edge of graphene are connected by only two bonds to the rest of the structure, the researchers could use the microscope’s high-energy electron beam (or “e-beam”) to chip the atoms away, one by one. While exposed to the e-beam, the edges of the graphene sheet appear to be continuously changing shape.The loss of carbon atoms on the edge of the graphene is the most crucial step in the process, the scientists explain, since it destabilizes the structure and triggers the subsequent three steps. The increase in the number of dangling carbon bonds at the edge of the graphene causes the formation of pentagons on the graphene edge, which is followed by the curving of the graphene into a bowl-like shape. Both of these processes are thermodynamically favorable, since they bring carbon atoms on the edge closer to one another, allowing them to form bonds with each other. (PhysOrg.com) — Peering through a transmission electron microscope (TEM), researchers from Germany, Spain, and the UK have observed graphene sheets transforming into spherical fullerenes, better known as buckyballs, for the first time. The experiment could shed light on the process of how fullerenes are formed, which has so far remained mysterious on the atomic scale. Play This video shows the transformation of a graphene sheet into a fullerene (forming in the top center of the images). Video credit: Andrey Chuvilin, et al. In the fourth and final step, the carbon bonds cause the curved graphene to “zip up” its open edges and form a cage-like buckyball. Because the zipping process reduces the number of dangling bonds, the spherical fullerene represents the most stable configuration of carbon atoms under these conditions. Once the edges are completely sealed, no further carbon atoms can be lost, and the newly created fullerene remains intact under the e-beam. PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Citation: For the first time, researchers observe graphene sheets becoming buckyballs (w/ Video) (2010, June 11) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-06-graphene-sheets-buckyballs-video.html Copyright 2010 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. More information: Andrey Chuvilin, et al. “Direct transformation of graphene to fullerene.” Nature Chemistry, Vol. 2, June 2010. DOI: 10.1038/NCHEM.644 Explore further Although spherical fullerenes can already be generated in high yields from graphite (which is made of many graphene sheets stacked together), up until now scientists have not fully understood the underlying mechanisms of their formation. By observing the process in real time in this study, the researchers have been able to identify the structural changes that the graphene undergoes in order to become increasingly round and form a perfect fullerene. The results help to unravel the mystery of fullerene formation by explaining, for instance, how laser ablation works as a fullerene production method: the microscope’s e-beam, similar to a laser beam, supplies the energy to break the carbon bonds and serve as the critical initial step in the formation process. “The key to the direct visualization of fullerene formation is (i) atomically thin graphene flakes mounted perpendicular to the electron beam; (ii) aberration corrected high resolution TEM allowing imaging with atomic resolution; and (iii) careful analysis of the evolution of graphene to fullerene, image simulation and correlation of the experimental data with theoretical calculations,” Khlobystov said. “This is why our study discovers so much more than previous TEM studies.”In addition, the results help explain the high abundance of C60 and C70 fullerenes (fullerenes composed of 60 or 70 carbon atoms) found in different methods of fullerene production. The researchers found that a large (more than 100 carbon atoms) initial graphene flake imposes a significant energy penalty during the curving step, so that its edges continue to be chipped away until it is small enough to curve. On the other hand, very small (less than 60 atoms) graphene flakes experience excessive strain on the carbon bonds during the curving step, preventing them from closing up. So to enable the thermodynamically driven formation process, fullerenes end up having a narrow range of diameters averaging about one nanometer, which corresponds to 60-100 carbon atoms.“Understanding the fullerene formation process teaches us about the fundamental connection between different forms of carbon,” Khlobystov said. “Also, it opens new avenues for fabrication of molecular nanostructures using the e-beam. This is a new way to do chemistry and to study molecules!” These images from a transmission electron microscope show the formation of fullerene from graphene. In (a), the edges of the graphene sheet continuously change shape when exposed to the e-beam. (b) shows the final product, while (c)-(h) show close-ups of the sequence of a graphene flake transforming into a fullerene. Image credit: Andrey Chuvilin, et al. Synthesis with a template: Carbon-free fullerene analogue This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
The researchers, Anne Bernard-Mantel from CNRS and the Universite Paris-Sud in Palaiseau, France, and coauthors have published their study on the new high-yield method of connecting single nano-objects in a recent issue of Nanotechnology. In addition to the increased efficiency at small scales, the new method is also compatible with a more diverse range of materials, such as highly oxygen-sensitive ferromagnetic materials. In contrast, previous methods could not use these metals due to their susceptibility to oxidation problems.In their study, the scientists demonstrated two similar fabrication processes. Both processes start with a bottom electrode and thin layer of alumina. In the first process, an assembly of nanoparticles is deposited, followed by another thin layer of alumina, and then a resist layer. Using a nanoindentation technique, the scientists drilled a nanohole into the resist layer and then filled it with metal to form the top electrode. The bottom of the nanohole comes to an extremely sharp point that connects with only one nanoparticle. In the second process, the only difference is that the alumina assembly is deposited after the resist layer. The final result is a solid-state device consisting of an assembly of nanoparticles, while only one nanoparticle is connected to both the top and bottom electrodes. The scientists demonstrated the processes with nanoparticles as small as 2 nm in diameter. They also used different materials, including metallic and semiconducting nanoparticles, as well as non-magnetic and ferromagnetic electrodes. In contrast with complex and expensive techniques such as electron beam lithography, the new method offers a simpler, cheaper alternative that also provides a higher yield at very small scales. Because the new method is also compatible with ferromagnetic materials, it could be used for investigating nanospintronics. Other possibilities include fabricating chemically grown nanoparticles and molecular nanomagnets.“The next step is now to adapt this technology to connect isolated molecular magnets,” coauthor Karim Bouzehouane of CNRS and the Universite Paris-Sud told PhysOrg.com. NEC Realizes Control of Position & Diameter of Carbon Nanotube Explore further (PhysOrg.com) — By connecting single nano-objects together, scientists can fabricate tiny solid-state devices through which a precisely controlled single-electron current can flow. In the past several years, scientists have been developing different methods for connecting single nano-objects, such as metallic nanoparticles, semiconducting nanocrystals, and molecules. However, as the size of the nano-objects decreases, the efficiency of these methods also decreases, so that most methods result in a low yield at the scale of a few nanometers. In a new study, scientists have developed a new way to connect single nano-objects that could overcome these challenges and enable the creation of new nanodevices. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: A. Bernand-Mantel, et al. “A versatile nanotechnology to connect individual nano-objects for the fabrication of hybrid single-electron devices.” Nanotechnology 21 (2010) 445201 (6pp). DOI:10.1088/0957-4484/21/44/445201 Copyright 2010 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. In the two fabrication processes, a hole is created in the resist layer (blue) and filled with metal to create the top electrode. The tip of the top electrode can be sufficiently small to connect to a single nanoparticle of the nanoparticle assembly (yellow dots). Image credit: Bernand-Mantel, et al. Citation: Scientists demonstrate more efficient way to connect nanoparticles for single-electron devices (2010, October 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-10-scientists-efficient-nanoparticles-single-electron-devices.html
More information: Toughening Elastomers with Sacrificial Bonds and Watching Them Break, Science 11 April 2014: Vol. 344 no. 6180 pp. 186-189. DOI: 10.1126/science.1248494ABSTRACTElastomers are widely used because of their large-strain reversible deformability. Most unfilled elastomers suffer from a poor mechanical strength, which limits their use. Using sacrificial bonds, we show how brittle, unfilled elastomers can be strongly reinforced in stiffness and toughness (up to 4 megapascals and 9 kilojoules per square meter) by introducing a variable proportion of isotropically prestretched chains that can break and dissipate energy before the material fails. Chemoluminescent cross-linking molecules, which emit light as they break, map in real time where and when many of these internal bonds break ahead of a propagating crack. The simple methodology that we use to introduce sacrificial bonds, combined with the mapping of where bonds break, has the potential to stimulate the development of new classes of unfilled tough elastomers and better molecular models of the fracture of soft materials. (Phys.org) —A team of researchers working in France has found a way to toughen elastomers—a class of rubbers. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes how they used a technique similar to that used to strengthen hydrogels to make elastomers stronger. Jian Ping Gong offers a Perspective piece on the work in the same issue of the journal. © 2014 Phys.org Elastomers are used in a wide variety of applications, primarily as shock absorbers—they can generally be easily stretched, but tend to break if a notch develops. Scientists would like to improve the strength of elastomers because it would allow for their use in more applications and for better results in applications in which they are already used. In this new effort, the researchers looked to a technique that has proven to be a good method of strengthening hydrogels—combining two different network materials.Hydrogels, as their name implies, are made mostly of water, they resemble organic tissue in many respects which is why research is ongoing to find a way to use them in biological applications. Prior research has shown that the addition of a second network material can cause an increase in their strength—in essence the added strength comes from the mesh that is created, offering increased resistance to cracking while still maintaining pliability. Until now, however, applying the same technique to elastomers has proven to be challenging because a secondary network material that would offer contrasting properties was not known. The second is the tendency of non-water based materials to separate because they don’t contain solvents. The team in France has found a solution to both these problems by employing a sequential polymerization technique. Explore further PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Researchers develop new kind of polymers that can be created using solid-state polymerization of organic dye molecules Citation: Research team develops method to strengthen elastomers (2014, April 11) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-04-team-method-elastomers.html Journal information: Science This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Play This video demonstrates the stretching and breaking of elastomers containing breakable sacrificial bonds that emit light as they break. The first experiment shown is a series of loading/unloading cycles, and the second experiment is the propagation of a crack. This video is real data on a live experiment and not an animation. Credit: Laboratory SIMM, ESPCI ParisTech & Institute for Complex Molecular Systems TU Eindhoven To create an elastomer with added strength, the team started with a traditional network material. Instead of simply introducing a second network material, the researchers used monomers of the first material, causing it to swell—the monomers were then polymerized causing the completion of a double-network structure. The end result is an elastomer that is stronger than those that have been made before, yet is still able to be stretched. Interestingly, the process can be repeated again to create a triple-network structure elastomer as well.To help test their new material, the researchers also added chemoluminescent molecules into the mix which caused the emittance of light when the material cracked. As Gong notes, the new technique is likely to stoke interest by other researchers, leading perhaps, to a new class of products.
(Phys.org)—Capacitors are widely used in electrical circuits to store small amounts of energy, but have never been used for large-scale energy storage. Now researchers from Japan have shown that the right combination of resistors and capacitors can allow electrical circuits to meet two key requirements of an energy storage device: quick charging and long-term discharging. Using capacitors as energy storage devices in circuits has potential applications for hybrid electric vehicles, backup power supplies, and alternative energy storage. Journal information: Applied Physics Letters This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. How to quickly store a large amount of electricity and control long-term discharging in an electrical circuit: (a) The capacitor (C) is quickly charged by closing switches S1, S2, S3, and S4. (b) To store the electricity in the capacitor, switches S1, S2, S3, and S4 are then opened. (c) Long-term discharging is carried out by closing S2 and S4, which closes the output circuit, and then using the variable resistor to control the discharging. ©2014 AIP Publishing LLC Explore further © 2014 Phys.org Citation: Can capacitors in electrical circuits provide large-scale energy storage? (2014, December 2) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-12-capacitors-electrical-circuits-large-scale-energy.html (a) and (b) The charging/discharging curves for various resistor-capacitor combinations. (c) Three-dimensional funnel-shaped surface contour displaying energy-rich discharging after complete charging. Credit: Fukuhara, et al. ©2014 AIP Publishing LLC More information: Mikio Fukuhara, et al. “Realizing a supercapacitor in an electrical circuit.” Applied Physics Letters. DOI: 10.1063/1.4902410 “The greatest significance of this work is the discovery of an RC region that offers quick charging and long-term discharging in an electrical circuit,” Fukuhara told Phys.org. “We think that this system will become an important method for storing much energy or only small amounts of energy in the near future. For this purpose, the storage capacitor must change from an electrochemical to a physical device.”The researchers attribute the quick charging and long-term discharging to the damming effect of the large resistor in the circuit. They explain that the relationship between the resistance and the capacitance of a supercapacitor is similar to that between the plug size and the amount of water in a water tank. The larger the plug (resistor), the more water (capacitance) the tank can hold. Until now, the damming effect of this RC combination on electrical energy storage in such circuits has been overlooked. The results also showed that a “dry” or “solid” supercapacitor made of an amorphous TiO2 surface with nanometer-sized cavities provides better performance than typical supercapacitors that use liquid solvents. The researchers’ earlier work on these dry TiO2 capacitors showed that they have several advantages for energy storage, such as a large capacitance of 4.8 F, wide operating temperature range from 193 to 453 K, and large voltage variation from 10 to 150 V. In contrast, traditional EDLCs suffer limitations in all of these areas.”Besides the early original researchers of electric circuits, people have believed that circuits are used only for quick charging and prompt discharging,” Fukuhara said. “Consequently, the damming effect of this RC combination on electrical energy storage in such circuits has been overlooked. When we began researching the dry physical capacitance using solid materials only, we began questioning the usual usage of capacitors based on the conventional concept.”In the future, the researchers plan to work on further improving the performance of these dry supercapacitors in order to make improvements to the energy-storage system overall.”Our plans are to develop dry, physical electric storage devices for use by electric vehicles, AC transmission lines, and charging of large amounts of lightning or large amounts of currents stored in air,” Fukuhara said. “However, it will take a long time.” Energy storage in miniaturized capacitors may boost green energy technology The researchers, Prof. Mikio Fukuhara, Tomoyuki Kuroda, and Prof. Fumihiko Hasegawa, at Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan, have published their paper in a recent issue of Applied Physics Letters.Developing efficient methods of electrical energy storage is a major topic of research, with a strong focus on batteries, fuel cells, and electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) when not incorporated in circuits. So far, no research has been performed on the use of capacitors or supercapacitors as energy storage devices in circuits.To explore the possibility of using capacitors to store energy in circuits, the researchers investigated the charging/discharging behavior of 126 resistor-capacitor (RC) combinations of 18 resistors, three ceramic capacitors, and four aluminum capacitors. They found that the RC combinations that are the best in terms of quick charging and long-term discharging consist of circuits with a small resistor, a large resistor, and a large capacitor. Some of these circuits could be charged in less than 20 seconds and hold the charge for up to 40 minutes, while having relatively large capacitances of up to 100 milliFarads (mF).
More information: Stav Atir et al. How gender determines the way we speak about professionals, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2018). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805284115AbstractGender inequality persists in many professions, particularly in high-status fields, such as science, technology, engineering, and math. We report evidence of a form of gender bias that may contribute to this state: gender influences the way that people speak about professionals. When discussing professionals or their work, it is common to refer to them by surname alone (e.g., “Darwin developed the theory of evolution”). We present evidence that people are more likely to refer to male than female professionals in this way. This gender bias emerges in archival data across domains; students reviewing professors online and pundits discussing politicians on the radio are more likely to use surname when speaking about a man (vs. a woman). Participants’ self-reported references also indicate a preference for using surname when speaking about male (vs. female) scientists, authors, and others. Finally, experimental evidence provides convergent evidence: participants writing about a fictional male scientist are more likely to refer to him by surname than participants writing about an otherwise identical female scientist. We find that, on average, people are over twice as likely to refer to male professionals by surname than female professionals. Critically, we identified consequences of this gender bias in speaking about professionals. Researchers referred to by surname are judged as more famous and eminent. They are consequently seen as higher status and more deserving of eminence-related benefits and awards. For instance, scientists referred to by surname were seen as 14% more deserving of a National Science Foundation career award. Citation: Use of surname for males more than females may be sign of unintentional bias (2018, June 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-06-surname-males-females-unintentional-bias.html Two researchers at Cornell University report that people are more likely to refer to men by surname only (last name) than women. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Stav Atir and Melissa Ferguson suggest that such labeling may lead to unintentional bias. Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences During the last presidential race in the U.S., the candidates from both major parties were given one-name monikers—doing so made referencing them easier. But notably, Hillary Clinton was called Hillary, while Donald Trump was called Trump. Why the difference? The researchers with this new effort wondered why as well, prompting them to look into the prevalence of men being referenced by surname versus women.Their study consisted of analyzing online reviews students gave for their professors and transcripts of political radio shows. They also asked volunteers to rewrite information from a blurb describing a fictional chemist.In all, the researchers looked at 5,000 professor reviews and more than 300 radio show transcripts counting the number of times a person was referenced by either their full name, or just their last name. They found that students were 55.9 percent more likely to refer to male professors by just their last name, compared to female professors. They also found that speakers on NPR political radio shows were twice as likely to do so. Intrigued, the researchers conducted an experiment in which they wrote an essay about a fictional chemist named either Douglas or Dolores Berson. They then gave the essays to 184 volunteers and asked them to rewrite it in their own words. Those asked to paraphrase the essay about Douglas were four times more likely to refer to him by his last name than were those writing about Dolores.The researchers conducted several other experiments aimed at trying to figure out why such differences exist—they found that volunteers felt that people referred to by just their last name were considered to be better known or more eminent than those referred to by both first and last name. They were not able to find any real reason that people seem more inclined to refer to men by their last names than women, but suggest it might indicate that a subtle form of bias exists in people’s minds. Researchers find a brain link between affective understanding and interpersonal attraction Explore further © 2018 Phys.org Credit: CC0 Public Domain This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
The Capital is soon going to see an artshow titled Waves of Beauty where paintings by Varsha Vaish will be exhibited. Curated by Vikram Sethi, the show will be inaugurated on 18 July by Shripad Yesso Naik, Minister for Culture and Tourism. The works that will be displayed are all inspired by the holy book Saundarya Lahiri, written by Adi Shankara Sharya. The show is Vaish’s devotion to Goddess Tripura Sundari. The artist was brought up close to the nature. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Oil paintings provided a medium to express the beauty and knowledge that inspired her. She believes that life is beautiful and one should enjoy it to its fullest. This belief led her to explore everything her heart desired. It even helped her to understand herself and the world in a better perspective. Also it enabled her to admire the creation of god and led to the quest for the invisible and the invincible. After experimenting with various mediums, styles and textures, Varsha’s use of colours are bold and captivating. Her themes are inspired by lessons of life from Indian philosophy and literature ,which gives us a lot of subjects to ponder upon.When: 18 – 24 JulyWhere: Lalit Kala Academy, Tilak Marg
With unusual widespread rains and high velocity winds lashing the northern region, about 10-20 per cent of timely sown wheat crop, which has got flattened, could face yield loss, say experts.Punjab and Haryana, which are major foodgrain growing states, have about 35 lakh hectares and 25 lakh hectares of area, respectively, under wheat in the current rabi season. Heavy rains on Monday continued to lash most parts of Punjab and Haryana. Punjab has received an average rainfall of 34 mm with maximum rainfall witnessed in Ropar (73 mm), Patiala (57 mm) Mohali (65 mm), NawanShahar (66mm) and Tarn Taran (43 mm). Also Read – I-T issues 17-point checklist to trace unaccounted DeMO cashIn Haryana, a few blocks such as Nuh in Mewat, Ganaur in Sonepat, received rainfall of 71 and 80 mm respectively. “There has been lodging in timely sown wheat crop because of ongoing rains and strong winds. About 10-20 per cent of the crop which has got flattened may get damaged,” Karnal-based Indian Institute of Wheat & Barley Research, Director, Indu Sharma said.Lodging refers to the term used to describe crop falling flat on the ground due to heavy rain and winds which causes yield loss in crop. Wheat crop at several places, including Amritsar, Ferozepur, Gurdaspur, Pathankot, Patiala, Mohali, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Nawanshahr in Punjab and a few districts Sirsa, Jhajjar, Sonepat, Kurukshetra in Haryana has got flattened because of rains and high velocity winds, officials of Punjab and Haryana agriculture departments said here on Monday.